The water softening process:

Water softening is a process by which the cations that cause the water to harden (calcium and magnesium) are eliminated and replaced by sodium, thus forming more soluble salts and avoiding crystallization and precipitation.

Ion exchange resins are small polymer beads with a highly sophisticated pore structure on their surface, which is particularly attractive to calcium and magnesium.

The regeneration of ion exchange resins is done with sodium chloride (common salt) specially designed for water treatment.

The stages of water softening:


  • The water is processed as it passes through the resin layer.
  • Ions are exchanged
  • Calcium and magnesium cations are deposited on the resins
  • Sodium cations are released into the water


  • The capacity of the resins is finite, when most of the sodium cations have been exchanged in the resins, the regeneration process must begin.
  • A saturated salt solution is introduced into the resin container
  • The inhibitory process begins and the resins are regenerated.
  • Sodium cations are deposited again on the surface of the resins, restoring them to their original form.
  • The concentrated mixture of calcium and magnesium cations is led to the sewer.
  • The system is prepared for operation after regeneration.

The basic stages of the regeneration process are:

  1. Reverse wash
  2. Charging of resins and slow washing
  3. Quick wash
  4. Filling the salt container

The types of softeners:

A very important factor to consider when choosing a softener is the type of head it has

  • Chronology: The regeneration of resins is defined in time and the day and time of regeneration can be adjusted.
  • Mechanical volumetric: The regeneration test is based on water demand, taking into account the hardness and volume of treated water. The water consumption is controlled with a meter and starts the regeneration process according to its regulation.
  • Electronic volumetric: Includes a microprocessor that allows the user to customize the installation data and water quality and in relation to the softener capacity, he calculates the ideal time to start the regeneration.

The main advantages of softened water:

Softened water:

  • Offers better personal hygiene: softer skin, softer hair, better shave etc.
  • Significant savings from avoiding the use of detergents against salts.
  • Easier to clean, because it does not create stains from salts
  • Keeps clothes softer and with vibrant colors.
  • It helps in cooking, reducing cooking time.
  • It avoids sediment by keeping electrical appliances in better condition, extending their lifespan.
  • Reduces energy consumption in water boilers.
  • Reduces the chances of damage and maintenance on electrical appliances, washing machines, water heaters and radiators.

Softeners are reliable, easy to install and have minimal maintenance costs.